In general, stress occurs when a person believes that the demands made on them are
greater than their ability to cope. In any given situation, for example, losing an
important work client, a person makes an appraisal of the potential consequences—such
as losing their job—and whether these are dangerous. Subsequent thoughts assess their
capacity to cope with the potential negative effects, for example, ‘My home and family
are safe’ vs ‘I will lose everything’. Their assessment of how well they will cope
with the situation is what leads to the amount of stress that they will experience.
A cognitive-behavioural approach to occupational stress places central emphasis on
a person’s thought processes: it is the person’s perception of the event, the consequences
and their ability to cope that mediates their stress response. This is not to say
that actual events are not stressful, but that there is an interaction between the
environment and the individual. This explains why different people find different
Stress is a normal human emotion and it is not possible, nor would it be helpful,
to eliminate it. A lack of stress can lead to people feeling bored and frustrated
at work. However, too much stress can lead to people feeling irritable, overloaded
and exhausted. Short bursts of stress can be unpleasant; nevertheless, they are not
harmful. Conversely, when stress continues for a long time and people do not have
time to recuperate it can become a problem.
Stress manifests in a person’s thoughts such as ‘I won’t get this project finished
on time’ or ‘It’s not fair that I have to deal with this’, emotions like anger, anxiety,
sadness, guilt, shame; and behaviours such as drinking more alcohol or over using
the Internet, changes in eating patterns, putting off doing things, shouting, passive
behaviour, withdrawal, taking on too much and lower work standards. Stress also effects
the body because when danger is perceived the brain sends a signal to the sympathetic
nervous system to prepare the body to defend itself, either to fight or to runaway
(the fight or flight response). Physical changes people may notice are: a rise in
heart rate and blood pressure, faster breathing and more muscle tension, sweat to
cool down the body, changes to vision and a dry mouth.
Thus, stress affects the individual, their ability to do their job and to manage
Individual approaches to managing stress
A sensible place to start is at the beginning. It can be helpful for people to identify
which situations they find stressful so that they can prepare for them both practically
and emotionally. Further, by becoming aware of their own ‘stress signature’ people
will recognise when they are stressed earlier on, which increases their chances of
successfully managing it. People can find these two tasks difficult, so it can be
helpful to talk to trusted family, friends or colleagues as they may be well placed
to share their observations.
Given that a person’s view of the world is central to the way they perceive work
related situations, it can be helpful for staff to become more familiar with their
Thinking styles can prevent someone from looking at a situation objectively or assessing
all of the available information.
Some common thinking styles which contribute to stress are
All or nothing: if I don’t get everything right all of the time then I am a failure
Catastrophising: if I don’t meet this deadline I will get sacked
Focusing on the negatives and ignoring the positives: nothing has gone right today
Mind reading: I can tell from looking at my boss that they think I am incompetent
I-can’t-stand-it-itis: if I have to work with this colleague again I won’t be able
to bear it
Should-itis: I should be able to do this, there is no excuse
The following questions can help people to evaluate their thinking:
What is the evidence for/ against the thought?
What is the worst/ best/ most realistic outcome that can happen and can I cope with
What would I say to a friend in a similar situation?
What has happened in the past?
Compounding a person’s sense of stress is their belief that they should always be
able to control the excessive demands made on them. This is not possible and becoming
more comfortable with uncertainty and a lack of control is essential in stress management.
Hence, the aim is not to get rid of stress, but to learn to manage it better.
Unfortunately, sometimes a person’s most dire work related predictions are realistic,
so challenging their thoughts may be unhelpful. A person’s behaviour can contribute
to the maintenance or resolution of a stressful experience. If a problem, such as
double booking of meeting rooms, can be solved then it makes sense to look for solutions
rather than to avoid the problem or only to manage the emotions that arise from the
However, if the problem cannot be changed then trying to change it may be a frustrating
and futile experience. In these circumstances it may be appropriate for a person
to regulate the intensity of stress by temporarily distracting themselves from thinking
about the difficulty, or conversely, to accept their thoughts about the situation.
Behaviour outside of work contributes to a person’s ability to cope at work. It is
important to have a good work-life balance, to have opportunities for enjoyment and
achievement, like hobbies, and to take annual leave. Research has found that people
who leave work for a stimulating and supportive environment experience lower levels
of ‘after hours’ stress than colleagues who do not return to a similar environment.
This is because people who engage in activities outside of work spend less of their
leisure time thinking about work. This is important to note, as 60% of Hong Kong
employees recently indicated that they had a poor work life balance and 49% reported
that they had no time for their partner and family (Source: Community Business, State
of Work-Life Balance in Hong Kong Survey 2008).
In 2006, a Hong Kong government survey found exercise was reported to be the most
frequently utilised stress coping method. Other ways to manage the physical component
of stress are relaxation techniques such as progressive muscle relaxation or visualisation,
controlled breathing, meditation and yoga.
Directly changing emotions can be difficult as they are ethereal, however, a person
who explores their thoughts, adapts their behaviour and manages their bodily feelings
will likely notice changes to their emotions. Additionally, people can talk to others
who make them feel better. Unfortunately, there are times when people cannot turn
to someone they know for support. In these situations, it may be helpful to call
a helpline such as the Samaritans or to seek professional help.
In summary, finding ways to manage stress is like developing a really good tool kit:
the more tools a person has, the more likely one of them is going to work in any
given situation. Initially, it may be a process of trial and error; however, as a
person explores and practices different approaches they increase the utility of their
tool kit and are likely to have the tools to do the job!